The patented zero-waste Crystalactor water treatment technology is used as advanced treatment for both drinking water softening and removal of heavy metals, fluoride and phosphates from (industrial) waste water. The Crystalactor technology is a flexible technology that can be used for treatment of both large and small water flows.
The technology has been implemented in the world's largest softening installations, but is also used to recover fluoride from concentrated flows in the semi-conductor industry, recover phosphate as struvite or for treatment of concentrate from inland desalination plants and membrane filtration units in order to reuse the water. With the latter, the Crystalactor technology contributes to the zero-liquid-discharge principle.
The technology is based on the selective removal of the compound by crystallisation as a sparingly soluble salt. The crystallisation is performed in a reactor of the fluidized-bed type (the so-called pellet reactor), in which the crystals grow on a seed material (e.g. sand particles). Next to an effluent with a highly reduced concentration, pure and almost water-free, reusable pellets are produced.
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Applications for drinking water, process water and wastewater include:
In softening applications Calcium Carbonate pellets are recovered using lime, caustic or soda ash as reagents. Softening can result in a significant reduction of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) levels. The Crystalactor can also be used to recover water from membrane filtration concentrates.
Metals are generally recovered as hydroxide, carbonate or sulphide compounds, while anions are usually removed as calcium salts. In certain applications it is more desirable to form complex salts. For example, phosphate can be removed as MgNH4PO4*6H2O, which simultaneously reduces the wastewater nitrogen content and is a slow release fertiliser.