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[1]  R. Krimp, De doden tellen. Slachtofferaantallen van de Tweede Wereldoorlog en sindsdien, Amsterdam, 2016 and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II_casualties?oldid=.

[2] This was under the leadership of hydraulic engineer, Johannes Aleidis Ringers. As government commissioner during the war, he had already been assigned the task of coordinating the reconstruction. 

[3]  From 1921 onwards, the firm took the name Ingenieursbureau voorheen J. van Hasselt en De Koning, and from 1946 Ingenieurs- en Architectenbureau voorheen J. van Hasselt en De Koning, see Royal Haskoning 1881-2006, p. 30, 34.

[4] For example: Tebodin in 1945, Witteveen + Bos in 1946, De Weger in 1949 (part of the Koninklijke Haskoning Group since 1997) and NACO (Netherlands Airport Consultants) in 1949 (part of DHV since 2003). 

[5] J.P. Van Bruggen, chief director of public works in Rotterdam, M.C. Fritzli, director of N.V. Adriaan Volker’s Mij tot het Uitvoeren van Openbare Werken in Rotterdam, T.K. Huizinga, director of N.V. NACO, and B.D.H. Tellegen, engineering consultant from The Hague. Luchtenbelt, 2015, p. 9.

[6] The proclamation of independence by Indonesia on 17 August 1945 – after a bloody war – was eventually recognised by the Netherlands on 27 December 1949. 

[7] The approach followed Keynes’ economic advice in 1919, published in his book, The Economic Consequences of Power.

[8]  In 1953, Heederik took part in a study trip focusing on the construction industry. This (and other trips) to the USA were organised by a group known as the Contactgroep Opvoering Productiviteit (COP).

[9] As it happened, these were not so much products but services, in particular, those provided by Dutch contractors and dredgers

[10] De Maasbode, ‘Ned. ingenieurs gaan “tam-tam” slaan in het buitenland’, 12 january 1952.

[11] Het Nieuwsblad voor Sumatra, ‘Adviesbureau voor ingeneurs [sic] werken in het Buitenland’, 19 december 1951 

[12] A.W. Luchtenbelt, Nederlandse ingenieursbureaus in het buitenland: alleen of samen sterk?, draft version of master´s dissertation, 26 June 2015, pp. 9-11. 

[13] Royal HaskoningDHV company archives. HAKO-NIEUWS, vol. 1, no. 6, November 1953, pp 3-5 and J.W. Tellegen, Dutch Engineers in a Global Market, pp. 18-19.

[14] Het Vaderland, 10/03/1955.

[15] Clason in Netherlands East Indies, Tellegen in the service of Ingenieursbureau voor waterbouwkundige adviezen ir. G.P. Nijhoff in The Hague. Tellegen, pp. 20-21 and Luchtenbelt, p. 8.

[16]   VerLoren van Themaat joined the firm in 1918 as an associate. From 1930 he took over at the helm, together with Job van der Steur. http://www.biografischwoordenboekgelderland.nl/bio/6_Reep_VerLoren_van_Themaat. In addition to VerLoren van Themaat, the Nedeco board also comprised: initiator J.P. van Bruggen, principal director of Public Works in Rotterdam, P.R. Zeeman, director of the Nederlandse Handelsmaatschappij (NHM) and Mr Berkhout of the Netherlands Royal Institute of Engineers (KIVI). HAKO-NIEUWS, vol. 1, no. 6, November 1953, pp. 5.

[17] This included Het Parool, 18 April 1952, De Volkskrant, 1 April 1952 and Algemeen Dagblad, 21 April 1952.

[18] The term was used for countries which had just emerged from colonial rule and which were shaping their own independent economic and infrastructure-related renewal, often with financial aid from international funds.

[19] H. van Duijvendijk, Werken van Haskoning in Nedeco-verband’ 2006, Royal HaskoningDHV company archives. At DHV it worked in exactly the same way: J.P der Weduwe became co-director precisely because of his work experience in Indonesia.

[20] Started working at Van Hasselt & De Koning in 1952 and was associate between 1960 and 1980. In 1954 he was sent to Calcutta for three months. Acting under the Nedeco flag and under the authority of the Indian state of West Bengal, he was carrying out a feasibility study into the drainage of the Salt Lakes to the east of the city. This was part of a plan to expand the city and the extent of agricultural land. RHDHV company archives, HASKONING-INFORMATIEF, ‘Uitzending in 1954’, April 1986-2, pp. 3-4. 

[21] Journal of visit Calcutta from 15 January to 3 April 1954, by P. Westbroek and from 31/1 by R. Tutein Nolthenius. RHDHV company archives.

[22] R.H Frijlink, ‘Activities of Dutch engineers abroad’, in Van Douwen, A.A. (1963) Selected Aspects of Hydraulic Engineering, Liber Amicorum dedicated to Johannes Theodoor Thijsse, on occasion of his retirement as professor. pp. 71-95

[23] This was alongside 69 projects at home. The firm had expanded enormously and now comprised 10 partners with 16 [chartered] engineers, 138 technicians, 19 administrative members of staff and 5 service personnel (male and female) R. VerLoren Van Themaat in Raadgevend Ingenieur, 1959, p. 230.

[24] Nationaal Archief, Nederlands Adviesbureau voor Ingenieurs in het buitenland (NEDECO): project files. Period 1952-1983. 

[25] De brug (‘The bridge’) presented to the firm by engineer D. (Dick) Havee, DHV 50 jaar 1967, pp. 11-12.

[26] RHDHV company archives, HASKONING-INFORMATIEF, April 1986-2.  

[27] Nedeco had expanded to become a firm with 25 members of staff and so competed with the other participating engineering firms. H. van Duijvendijk, ‘Werken van Haskoning in Nedeco verband’ 2006, RHDHV company archives. At that point, ironically enough, it became a real cartel. This included a way of sharing out assignments that was tellingly called Pandora’s box. Luchtenbelt, p. 14.

[28] The last version of Nedeco was finally closed down in 2001. Tellegen 2008, p. 89.